Preheat oven to 350° F. Toast nuts briefly in the oven or in a dry skillet until fragrant, about 5-10 minutes. Allow to cool completely, then grind in a food processor or mortar and pestle to a medium-fine consistency.
Mix nuts, ½ tsp. cinnamon and 1/3 cup sugar in a medium mixing bowl.
Meanwhile, make the syrup. Place sugar, honey, lemon juice, water, and cloves in a saucepan. Bring to a boil, stirring to dissolve sugar. Reduce heat to medium and boil until syrup reduces to about 2 cups. Remove lemon peel and cloves and discard. Add ground cardamom and pinch cinnamon and stir. Allow syrup to cool completely.
Brush a 9″ x 13″ baking pan with melted butter. Cut phyllo sheets in half to fit your pan.
Layer 8 sheets of phyllo in the bottom, brushing lightly with the butter between the layers. Then spread about 1/3 of the nut mixture evenly. Add 6 more phyllo sheets, brushing butter between layers. Repeat with another 1/3 of the nut mixture. Repeat again with 6 more layers of phyllo and the remainder of the nut mixture. Then top with 8 layers of phyllo, brushing between layers and the top.
Score the top of the phyllo with a sharp knife. Don’t cut all the way through, just lightly score through the top 2 or three sheets. Make even squares, like brownies, then score the squares on the diagonal into triangles.
Bake until phyllo is golden brown and crispy, about 40-45 minutes. When Baklava is done, cool for about 5 minutes, then cut the portions that you scored all the way through. Spoon the cooled syrup evenly over the warm Baklava, letting it soak in. Use it all. Allow to cool to room temperature and serve.