When the temperatures drop, exposed skin can take a beating and frostbite can develop very quickly. Frostbite is a severe reaction to cold exposure that can permanently cause damage to its victims.
What Are The Symptoms of Frostbite?
Frostbite happens when the skin and the tissue underneath it actually freeze. Winds and cold temperatures are the culprits, as well as not dressing properly for the cold outdoors. Frostbite affects children more than adults, as children lose more heat through the skin. The first symptom, called frost-nip, is the least severe form and usually leaves the skin feeling numb and looking white. Cheeks, noses, and ears are most frequently frost-nipped. When the skin thaws or warms, the affected area will become red and painful. With even more severe frostbite, the skin may appear white and feel very numb, meaning that the tissue has started to freeze. Very severe frostbite may cause blisters and damage to structures, such as tendons, muscles and bone.
How To Treat Frostbite Victims
If frostbite is suspected, begin warming the person slowly and seek immediate medical assistance. Warm the person’s trunk first. Use your own body heat to help. Arms and legs should be warmed last because stimulation of the limbs can drive cold blood towards the heart and cause heart failure.
Put the person in dry clothing and wrap their entire body in a blanket.
Never give a frostbite or hypothermia victim something with caffeine in it (like coffee or tea) or alcohol. Caffeine, a stimulant, can cause the heart to beat faster and hasten the effects the cold has on the body. Alcohol, a depressant, can slow the heart and also hasten the ill effects of cold body temperatures.
Hypothermia is a condition brought on when the body temperature drops below 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Symptoms of hypothermia include uncontrollable shivering, slow speech, memory lapses, frequent stumbling, drowsiness and exhaustion. Read more about hypothermia here.
Be prepared! Dress appropriately and limit time outdoors in cold, windy conditions.