Baking and Ingredient Substitutes

Bake up a masterpiece! This handy chart helps you make effective substitutions for common baking ingredients for when you’re out of flour, butter, eggs, and more.

Ingredient Amount Substitute
Allspice 1 tsp. 1/2 tsp. cinnamon and 1/2 tsp. ground cloves
Apple pie spice 1 tsp. 1/2 tsp. cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp. cardamom
Baking powder 1 tsp. 1/3 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar
1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/4 cup molasses (decrease liquid amount in recipe by 1 to 2 tablespoons)
Broth, beef or chicken 1 cup 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 envelope powdered broth base, dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
Butter 1 cup 7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat and 1/2 tsp. salt
7/8 cup lard, plus 1/2 tsp. salt
1 cup margarine
1 cup applesauce
1 cup avocado
Buttermilk 1 cup 1 cup plain yogurt
1 cup whole or skim milk, plus 1 tbsp. lemon juice or white vinegar
1 cup milk, plus 1 3/4 tsp. cream of tartar
Chives, finely chopped 2 tsp. 2 tsp. green onion tops, finely chopped
Chocolate chips, semi-sweet 6 oz. pkg. 2 squares unsweetened chocolate, 2 tbsp. shortening, and 1/2 cup sugar
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 oz. or square 3 tbsp. cocoa, plus 1 tbsp. butter or margarine
Coconut cream 1 cup 1 cup heavy or whipping cream
Coconut milk 1 cup 1 cup whole or 2% milk
Corn syrup 1 cup 1 cup honey
1 cup maple-flavored syrup
Cornstarch (for thickening) 1 tbsp. 2 tbsp. all-purpose flour
4 tsp. instant tapioca
Cream, heavy 1 cup 3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
(36% to 40% fat) 1 cup evaporated skim milk
Cream, light 1 cup 3/4 cup milk and 3 tbsp. butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
(18% to 20% fat) 1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted
Cream, whipped 1 cup frozen whipped topping, thawed
Egg, whole, uncooked 1 large 2 tbsp. arrowroot, mixed with 3 tbsp. of water
(3 tbsp.) 2 1/2 tbsp. sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2 1/2 tbsp. lukewarm water
2 yolks and 1 tbsp. water (in cookies)
2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, or similar mixture)
Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tbsp. 1 1/2 tsp. cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch
1 tbsp. granular tapioca
1 tbsp. waxy rice flour
2 tbsp. brown flour
1 1/2 tbsp. whole wheat flour
Flour, all-purpose 1 cup sifted 1 cup and 2 tbsp. cake flour
1 cup rolled oats, crushed
1/2 cup cornmeal
1 ½ cups breadcrumbs
3/4 cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, self-rising 1 cup 1 cup, minus 2 tsp. all-purpose flour, plus 1 1/2 tsp. baking powder, and 1/2 tsp. salt
Garlic 1 clove, small 1/8 tsp. garlic powder
1/2 to 1 tsp. garlic salt (reduce amount of salt called for in recipe)
Garlic salt 1 tsp. 1/8 tsp. garlic powder, plus 7/8 tsp. salt
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cup sugar and 1/4 cup water
Ketchup 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, and 2 tbsp. vinegar (for use in cooking)
Milk, evaporated (whole or skim) 1 cup 1 cup whole milk
1 cup regular whipping or heavy cream
Milk, sweetened condensed 1 can (about 1 1/3 cup) 1/3 cup and 2 tbsp. evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar, and 3 tbsp. butter or margarine. Heat until sugar and butter are dissolved.
Milk, whole 1 cup 1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk (Optional: add 2 tbsp. butter or margarine.)
1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water
1 cup almond, hemp, or soy milk
1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use in baking)
Peppermint, dried 1 tbsp. 1/4 cup fresh mint, chopped
Pumpkin pie spice 1 tsp. 1/2 tsp. cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. ginger, 1/8 tsp. allspice, and 1/8 tsp. nutmeg
Shortening, melted 1 cup 1 cup cooking oil (Substitute only if a recipe calls for melted shortening.)
Shortening, solid (used in baking) 1 cup 1 cup butter
1 cup margarine
Sour cream, cultured 1 cup 3/4 cup sour milk or buttermilk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine
1 cup plain yogurt
3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp. lemon juice, and 1/3 cup butter or margarine
Spearmint, dried 1 tbsp. 1/4 cup fresh mint, chopped
Sugar, brown 1 cup firmly packed 1 cup granulated sugar
1 cup granulated sugar, plus 1 tbsp. pure maple syrup
Sugar, granulated 1 cup 1 cup honey (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by ¼ cup.)
1 1/3 cups molasses (Decrease liquid in recipe by 1/3 cup.)
1 1/2 cups corn syrup (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/4 cup.)
Sugar, powdered 1 cup Blend 1 cup granulated sugar and 1 tsp. cornstarch until a fine powder.
Tapioca, granular 1 tbsp. 2 tbsp. pearl tapioca
Worcestershire sauce 1 tsp. 1 tsp. bottled steak sauce
Yogurt, plain 1 cup 1 cup buttermilk
1 cup cottage cheese, blended until smooth
1 cup sour cream

Note: Substitutes for white flours added to most baked goods will result in reduced volume and a heavier product. Substitute no more than 1/4 of the amount of white flour called for in a cake recipe to ensure success. In other recipes, you can substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of the amount of white flour called for.

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