What is “Indian Summer” or “Second Summer”?

Learn about this warming weather pattern and what must be in place to make it officially an "Indian Summer."

“Indian summer” is a phrase most North Americans use to describe an unseasonably warm and sunny patch of weather during autumn.

Weather Historian William R Deedler, of the National Weather Service, describes it as “any spell of warm, quiet, hazy weather that may occur in October or even early November”.

An Indian summer is typically caused by a sharp shift in the jet stream from the south to the north. The warm weather may last anywhere from a few days to over a week and may happen multiple times before winter arrives for good.

To be a true Second Summer, the following generally agreed upon criteria must be met:

  • Temperatures must be above 70 degrees Fahrenheit for a period of at least seven days or more after the fall equinox.
  • The heatwave must occur after the first frost.

No one really knows how the term “Indian summer” came to describe such periods. One theory suggests that early American settlers mistook the sight of sun rays through the hazy autumn air for Native American campfires, resulting in the name “Indian summer.” Others speculate that Native Americans recognized this weather pattern and used the opportunity to gather additional food for the winter.

Who Experiences Indian Summers?

Indian summer - Summer

Indian summer is a common occurrence not only in North America but also throughout temperate European countries, where it is most commonly called “St. Martin’s Summer.” The name is a reference to St. Martin’s Day, which falls on November 11. Many countries, including England, Italy, Portugal, and Sweden, have traditional outdoor festivals in the week leading up to St. Martin’s Day.

Other popular variations include “Second Summer,” “St. Luke’s Summer,” in reference to St. Luke’s Day on October 18, “All-Hallown Summer,” in reference to All Saints Day on November 1, and the more popularly celebrated “All Hallow’s Eve,” or Halloween.

If you find yourself in the midst of a “second summer,” take advantage of it! Finish that last little bit of yard work, take the boat out one more time, or have a picnic in the park. Soak in the sunshine because winter will not be far behind.

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Thanks for your kind post. I always wondered. About the word Indian summer. I always thought about it that way and came to this rational conclusion. It came as a surprise to the Indians that in mid-October or early November, after the first frost, the heat again covered the land. They had already prepared for winter and changed to a cold climate, but again the hot heat covered the earth. To their surprise, they found that after a week or so, they were replaced with cold air. Then obviously the Indians had to have an Indian Winter. The reason for this is that the movement of airflow is always caused by the change in the position of cold air and hot air. hot air rises The cold air comes down. This is due to the difference in the weight of the air masses. As geothermal heat cools and cold air is generated, the hot heat in the atmosphere rises. Now, it is the moment when the hot heat is dissipated as the hot heat is pushed down by the last work of the cold air to push the heat away. After the last remaining heat is gone, the warm wind disappears and the climate is completely transformed into a chilly climate. As the air current fluctuates and moves, severe winds occur for 3 to 4 days in early summer and early winter. The phenomenon is cleaning the trees. This phenomenon is opposite to the replacement of the same airflow before summer. Indian Winter was obviously supposed to be there. Thank you so much


Which regions are Indian Summers most common?
Does the Southeastern region have Indian Summers?

Susan Higgins

Hi Bonnie, good question. Indian Summers originated with Northeast/New England weather, where temperature rises after the first frost would earn the name. If souther regions have a frost followed by a warm up, it could certainly be considered an Indian Summer but those types of temperature fluctuations are not as common as they are in the Northeast.

Eva Reid

Evieeee….enjoy the last warm days and then ‘Indian Summer’ after first frost because Mr. Winter is on his way to O H I O! smile

C Schroll

People, September may be a fall month, but we still have summer temps throughout it. It’s been like that for a LONG time and you’re just NOW noticing it? Sheesh!


They are not “just now noticing it” they are discussing the origins of Indian Summer! No need to be rude? Reading really IS fundamental ?

Last edited 2 years ago by Why?

If Indian summer doesn’t start until the fall, why are we having hot weather that literally burns you if the sun is on you less than a minute. We had a hot summer but nothing like what we are having now. Does this weather mean we will have long, cold and wet winter?


This is year two of La nina. If your in the north and east of montana, you’ll be seeing lots of snowfall. Very dry in the south

S Beck

Queston: Are there now back to back El Nino La N ?

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